Tutorials offered at VTC2011-Fall
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T2: Interference Alignment
Presented by: Syed A. Jafar, University of California at Irvine
Room: Golden Gate 1
Interference is the primary bottleneck on the data rate capacity of most wireless and many wired
networks. The recent emergence of the idea of interference alignment has shown that the throughput limits of interference networks may be orders of magnitude higher than previously imagined. In a relatively short period of three years since its emergence, the idea has gained tremendous momentum in research pursued by industry as well as the academia within the network information theory, communication theory, signal processing, and network coding communities. This tutorial introduces the audience to the idea of interference alignment, traces its origins, reviews a variety of interference alignment schemes, summarizes the diverse settings where the idea of interference alignment is applicable and highlights the common principles that cut across these diverse applications.
The tutorial will place special emphasis on the fundamental aspects of Interference Alignment. Topics covered will include – the non-trivial nature of bandwidth and degrees of freedom metrics in a multiuser setting; the tradeoffs between accessible signaling dimensions – time, frequency, space and signal levels – in a wireless network with multiple antenna nodes; interference alignment as a means to recover desired information when the number of equations is much smaller than the number of unknown variables; conceptual examples to illustrate the principles behind interference alignment; feasibility conditions for interference alignment through linear beamforming schemes and connections to algebraic geometry; lattice alignment and connections to diophantine approximation theory; universal and asymptotic interference alignment; opportunistic and ergodic interference alignment; distributed interference alignment; blind interference alignment; aligned interference neutralization; and the combination of interference alignment and network coding for multiple unicasts. Applications include capacity of interference networks, X networks, cellular
networks, multicast and compound networks, tactical communication networks with secrecy and jamming issues, cooperative communication networks, cognitive radio networks, and distributed data storage networks.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Linear Interference Alignment - Concept
- 2.1 Few observed equations, Many unknowns
- 3 Origins of Interference Alignment
- 3.1 Index Coding
- 3.2 X Channel
- 3.3 Interference Channel with K > 2 Users
- 4 New Challenges and Solutions
- 4.1 Feasibility of Linear Interference Alignment
- 4.2 Symbol Extensions
- 4.3 Asymmetric Complex Signaling
- 4.4 Channel Variations
- 4.5 Ergodic Interference Alignment
- 4.6 An Asymptotic Interference Alignment Scheme – [CJ08]
- 4.6.1 Essential Construction of [CJ08] Asymptotic Alignment Scheme
- 4.6.2 Application to K-user interference channel with time-varying channel coefﬁcients
- 4.7 Interference Alignment based on Separability of Rationally Independent Dimensions
- 4.7.1 The Rational Dimensions Framework
- 4.8 Lattice Alignment
- 4.9 Blind Interference Alignment
- 4.10 Retrospective Interference Alignment
- 5 Applications of Interference Alignment
- 5.1 K User Interference Channel
- 5.2 K User M × N MIMO Interference Channels
- 5.3 Cellular Networks
- 5.4 X Networks
- 5.5 Compound MISO Broadcast Channel
- 5.6 Network Coding - Multiple Unicasts
- 5.7 Distributed Storage Exact Repair Problem
- 5.8 Multihop Interference Networks
- 5.9 Bidirectional Relay Interference Networks
- 5.10 Cooperative Interference Networks
- 5.11 Secrecy
The intended audience for this tutorial consists of students, researchers as well as
research program managers from industry, government and academia who are working on or interested in the future potential of wireless network communication technologies in general and in the radical idea of interference alignment in particular.
Interference alignment is a radical idea that has recently emerged out of the capacity analysis
of interference networks. In a relatively short time, this concept has challenged much of the conventional wisdom about the throughput limits of both wired and wireless networks. There is an explosion of interest in this topic and there are no other tutorial resources available so far.
Syed Ali Jafar received the B. Tech. degree in Electrical Engineering from the Indian Institute of
Technology (IIT), Delhi, India in 1997, the M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena USA in 1999, and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University, Stanford, CA USA in 2003. His industry experience includes positions at Lucent Bell Labs , Qualcomm Inc. and Hughes Software Systems. He is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA USA. His research interests include multiuser information theory and wireless communications.
Dr. Jafar received the NSF CAREER Award in 2006, the ONR Young Investigator Award in 2008, the IEEE Information Theory Society Paper Award in 2009 and the UC Irvine Engineering School Fariborz Maseeh Award for Outstanding Research in 2010. Dr. Jafar also received the UC Irvine Engineering Faculty of the Year Award in 2006 and the UC Irvine EECS Professor of the Year Award twice, in 2009 and again in 2011, for excellence in teaching. He received the Visiting Erskine Fellowship from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand in 2010. Dr. Jafar was a plenary speaker at SPCOM 2010 and at the IEEE Communication Theory Workshop 2010. He is the inaugural lecturer for the First Canadian School of Information Theory. He served as Associate Editor for IEEE Transactions on Communications 2004-2009, for IEEE Communications Letters 2008-2009 and is currently serving as Associate Editor for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory.
T3: QoS Provisionings in Wireless Cognitive Radio Networks
Presented by: Prof. Xi Zhang, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, USA
Room: Golden Gate 2
Recently, the cognitive radio technology has emerged as an intelligent, flexible, and efficient spectrum accessing way to increase the spectrum efficiency by enabling the secondary users (unlicensed users) to opportunistically utilize the vacant spectrum which is not used by the primary users (licensed users). The QoS provisioning in wireless cognitive radio networks, which is critical to many time-, reliability-, and/or throughput-sensitive wireless communications networks, encounters new and challenging problems in that the QoS performance of the secondary users is not only affected by the time-varying wireless channels, but also constrained by the uncertain incumbency of the primary users. In this tutorial, we will address the key issues and challenges, as well as the state-of-the-art theories and techniques for QoS-assurance wireless cognitive radio networks. This tutorial will also cover a number of our newly developed results on the design of QoS-driven wireless cognitive radio networks with emphasis on PHY and MAC layers. We will provide attendees with an essential understanding of the current research of QoS-provisionings in wireless cognitive radio networks.
The objective of the tutorial is to bring together leading researchers and practitioners from academia and industry, for an in-depth exchange of ideas in the area of "QoS Provisionings over Cognitive Radio
Networks". The cognitive radio technology has emerged as an intelligent, flexible, and efficient spectrum accessing way to increase the spectrum efficiency by enabling the secondary users (unlicensed users) to opportunistically utilize the vacant spectrum which is not used by the primary users (licensed users). The QoS provisioning in wireless cognitive radio networks, which is critical to many time-, reliability-,
and/or throughput-sensitive wireless networking and systems, encounters new and challenging problems in that the QoS performance of the secondary users is not only affected by the time-varying wireless channels, but also constrained by the uncertain incumbency of the primary users. In this tutorial, we will address the key issues and challenges, as well as the state-of-the-art theories and techniques for QoS-assurance wireless cognitive radio networks. This tutorial will also cover a number of
our newly developed results on the design of QoS-driven wireless cognitive radio networks with emphasis on PHY and MAC layers. We will provide attendees with an essential understanding of the current research of QoS-provisionings in wireless cognitive radio networks. The specific
research topics/areas to be explored in detail in this tutorial are summarized in the outline given below.
- 1:1. Introduction
- 1.1. Motivation: spectrum scarcity and underutilization
- 1.2. QoS performance metrics in cognitive radio networks
- 1.3. Challenges in implementing QoS provisionings in cognitive radio networks
- 1.4. Comparisons of different dynamic-spectrum-accessing methods: underlay, overlay, and interweave
- 1.5. Synchronous and asynchronous channel structures
- 1.6. Applications
- 1:2. QoS provisionings in synchronous cognitive radio networks
- 2.1. QoS-driven PHY/MAC protocols in the perspective of secondary users
- 2.1.1. Cooperative spectrum sensing
- 2.1.2. Contention-oriented multi-channel MAC protocols
- 2.1.3. Channel-hopping based dynamic spectrum access schemes
- 2.1.4. Queue-aware spectrum accessing schemes
- 2.2. PHY/MAC protocols in the perspective of primary users
- 2.2.1. Secondary user-friendly MAC protocols
- 2.2.2. Tradeoff between spectrum efficiency and QoS performance
- 2.2.3. Design guidelines
- 1:3. QoS provisionings in asynchronous cognitive radio networks
- 3.1. Non-time-slotted channel structure
- 3.2. Primary-users' traffic modeling
- 3.3. Energy-efficient sequential spectrum sensing
- 3.4. Power-control based underlay spectrum accessing
- 3.5. Sensing-oriented interweave spectrum accessing
- 3.6. Integration of underlay and interweave spectrum accessing for QoS provisionings
- 3.7. Case studies for different primary users' channel patterns
- 4. Conclusions and Future Research Directions
This tutorial is intended for typical VTC attendees, including researchers, engineers, and practitioners in academia (professors and graduate students), industry engineers/managers, and government agencies, as well as the general audiences.
The tutorial is the first of its kind investigating the QoS provisionings in Wireless Cognitive Radio Networks. The focus of this tutorial is on studying/explaining how to efficiently support the QoS provisionings in Wireless Cognitive Radio Networks, discussing the theoretical foundations, implementation challenges, and presenting the state-of-the-art approaches and ongoing research efforts.
Xi Zhang received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and computer science (Electrical Engineering-Systems) from The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Prof. Zhang is currently an Associate Professor and the Founding Director of the Networking and Information Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University. He was with the Networks and Distributed Systems Research Department, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hills, NJ, and with AT&T Laboratories Research, Florham Park, NJ, in 1997. He has published more than 190 research papers. Prof. Zhang received the U.S. National Science Foundation CAREER Award in 2004 for his research in the areas of mobile wireless and multicast networking and systems. He is an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer in IEEE Communications Society. He received the Best Paper Awards in IEEE GLOBECOM 2007, IEEE GLOBECOM 2009, and IEEE WCNC 2010, respectively. He also received TEES Select Young Faculty Award for Excellence in Research Performance from Texas A&M University in 2006. He is currently serving as an Editor for IEEE Transactions on Communications, an Editor for IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, an Associate Editor for IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, a Guest Editor for the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications for the special issue on "Broadband Wireless Communications for High Speed Vehicles", a Guest Editor for IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications for the special issue on Wireless Video Transmissions, an Associate Editor for IEEE Communications Letters, a Guest Editor for IEEE Communications Magazine for the special issue on "Advances in Cooperative Wireless Networking", and also a Guest Editor for IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine for the special issue on "Next Generation of CDMA versus OFDMA for 4G Wireless Applications". Prof. Zhang is serving or has served as the Technical Program (TPC) Co-Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2013, TPC Area Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2012, the TPC Chair for IEEE GLOBECOM 2011, TPC Co-Chair for the IEEE ICDCS 2011 - Workshop on Data Center Performance, Panel/Demo/Poster Chairs for the ACM MobiCom 2011,TPC Vice-Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2010, TPC Co-Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2009 Mini-Conference, TPC Co-Chair for IEEE GLOBECOM 2008 - Wireless Communications Symposium, TPC Co-Chair for IEEE ICC 2008 - Information and Network Security Symposium,Poster Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2008, Student Travel Grant Co-Chair for IEEE INFOCOM'07.
T4: Millimeter-wave Mobile Broadband - Unleashing the 3 - 300 GHz spectrum for mobile communication
Presented by: Zhouyue Pi, Farooq Khan, Samsung Telecommunications America
Room: Golden Gate 2
Almost all cellular mobile communications including first generation analog systems, second generation digital systems, third generation WCDMA systems, and fourth generation OFDMA systems use Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band of radio spectrum with frequencies in the range of 300MHz-3GHz. This band of spectrum is becoming increasingly crowded due to spectacular growth in mobile data services. The portion of the RF spectrum above 3GHz has been largely uxexploited for commercial mobile applications. In this tutorial, we discuss propagation and device technology challenges associated with this band as well as its unique advantages such as spectrum availability and small component sizes for mobile applications. We also present a practical millimeter-wave mobile broadband (MMB) system that can achieve multi-Gbps data communications in urban environment.
1. Learn millimeter-wave propagation characteristics, including free space loss, penetration loss, absorption by various materials, diffraction, and ground reflection.
2. Understand the advantages of millimeter-wave for mobile application, including very large antenna arrays in small form factors, large transmitter and receiver beamforming gains, abundance of millimeter-wave spectrum, etc.
3. Become familiar with the millimeter-wave mobile broadband (MMB) system that can support mobile broadband communication with Gbps data rate and high mobility (120 kph - 350 kph)
4. Understand the different transmitter and receiver beamforming techniques and their advantages and disadvantages.
5. Understand the MMB system performance and the system performance evaluation methodology
6. Understand the challenges and further research and development opportunities in MMB.
- 1. Introduction
- 1.1. Mobile broadband growth
- 1.2. The myth of traffic and revenue gap
- 1.3. The national broadband plan
- 2. mmW spectrum
- 2.1. History of millimeter wave communications
- 2.2. Unleashing 3-300GHz spectrum
- 2.3. LMDS and 70/80/90 GHz bands
- 3. mmW Propagation characteristics
- 3.1. Free Space Propagation
- 3.2. Material penetration loss
- 3.3. Oxygen and water absorption
- 3.4. Foliage absorption
- 3.5. Rain absorption
- 3.6. Diffraction
- 3.7. Ground reflection
- 4. mmW Mobile Broadband (MMB) network architecture
- 4.1. Stand-alone MMB system
- 4.2. MMB base station grid
- 4.3. Hybrid MMB + 4G systems
- 4.4. Deployment and antenna configuration
- 5. MMB air-interface design
- 5.1. Duplex and multiple access schemes
- 5.2. Frame Structure
- 5.3. Channel coding and modulation
- 6. Dynamic beamforming with miniature antennas
- 6.1. Beamforming fundamentals
- 6.2. Baseband beamforming
- 6.3. Analog beamforming
- 6.4. RF beamforming
- 6.5. Beamforming in fading channels
- 7. Radio frequency components design and challenges
- 7.1. RF transceiver architecture
- 7.2. MMB RF transceiver requirement
- 7.3. mmWave Power amplifier
- 7.4. mmWave LNA
- 8. MMB system performance
- 8.1. Link budget analysis
- 8.2. Link Level performance
- 8.3. Geometry distribution
- 8.4. System throughput analysis
- 9. Summary
This tutorial is aimed at researchers, system and device developers, network operators and technical mangers in the wireless communications area. The tutorial introduces multi-Gbps millimeter-wave mobile broadband (MMB) systems as an evolution beyond 4G.
This tutorial describes novel physical layer techniques and system design approaches that take advantage of the characteristics of millimeter waves and enable the application of millimeter-wave (3 - 300 GHz) to mobile communication. As a result, this technology opens up ~100 GHz spectrum for mobile communication and can achieve capacity 100 - 1000 times greater than the capacity of 4G systems, thus meeting the explosive growth of mobile data traffic growth in the next decade.
Zhouyue (Jerry) Pi is Director with Samsung R&D center in Dallas, Texas, where he leads 4G standardization and development efforts. Before joining Samsung, he worked in Nokia Research Center in Dallas and San Diego on 3G standardization and modem development. He has published more than 15 research papers and more than 80 patents and patent applications. He received his B.E. degree in Automation from Tsinghua University (with honor), M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from Ohio State University, and his MBA degree from Cornell University (with distinction).
Farooq Khan is Senior Director with Samsung R&D center in Dallas, Texas, where he manages research in the areas of wireless communications, multimedia, computing and smart energy. Previously, he held research positions with Bell Laboratories in New Jersey and Ericsson Research in Sweden. He has authored more than 35 research papers and holds over 50 US patents. He also authored a book “LTE for 4G Mobile Broadband – Air Interface Technologies and Performance”. He holds an M.S. degree in electrical engineering from Ecole Supérieure d’Electricité, Paris, France and a Ph.D. degree in computer science from Université de Versailles, France.
T5: Order Statistics in Wireless Communications: Diversity, Adaptation and Scheduling
Presented by: Hong-Chuan Yang, University of Victoria, Canada, and Mohamed-Slim Alouini, KAUST, Saudi Arabia
Room: Golden Gate 3
In this tutorial, we systematically present some new order statistics results and illustrate their application in wireless system analysis. We first summarize the basics of digital wireless communications over fading channels, which provides the necessary background. Then, the statistical results, more specifically the conventional and new results on the distribution functions of random variables involving order statistics, are presented. After that, we discuss the applications of these results in the analysis and design of several classes of wireless technologies that is essential to future generation wireless systems, including advanced diversity combining techniques, joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining, and multiuser parallel scheduling in wide-band code division multiple access (WCDMA) and multiuser MIMO systems. We strive to achieve an ideal balance between theory and practice. Special emphasis will be placed on the accurate quantification of the performance versus complexity tradeoff throughout the presentation.
The wireless communication industry is still experiencing an exciting era of rapid development. New technologies and designs emerge on a regular basis. The timely adoption of these technologies in real-world systems relies heavily on the availability of the accurate prediction of their performance over general wireless fading channels and the corresponding system complexity. Theoretical performance and complexity analysis become invaluable in this process, because they can help circumvent the time-consuming computer simulation and expensive field test campaigns. Mathematical and statistical tools usually play a critical rule in the performance analysis of digital wireless communication systems over fading channels.
In this tutorial, we focus on the application of ordered statistics to the exact performance and complexity analysis of wireless communication systems. The presenters are in the final stage of publishing a book on this topic with Cambridge University Press. Hence much of what the presenters will cover in the tutorial will come from the book. Specifically, we
introduce several new results on ordered statistics, which were developed during our recent study of advanced diversity combining techniques and adaptive transmission/reception systems. To further demonstrate the usefulness of these results, we discuss their applications in solving several diverse problems in wireless system analysis. The intent of the tutorial is to extend the attendees’ knowledge of order statistics and their application to the performance analysis of communication systems over wireless fading channels. It is our sincere wish that this tutorial will best prepare participants to further explore the potential of ordered statistics in wireless communication system design and analysis.
- Digital Wireless Communications
- Digital communications over fading channels
- Diversity combining techniques
- New Results of Order Statistics
- Partial sum of ordered r. v.
- Marginal and joint distributions of ordered random variables (r.v.)
- Joint distributions of partial sums of ordered r.v.
- Diversity Combining for Wideband Wireless Systems
- Generalized selection combining (GSC)
- Minimum selection generalized selection combining (MS-GSC)
- Output threshold MRC/GSC
- Joint Adaptive Modulation and Diversity Combining
- System mode of operation
- AMDC with MS-GSC
- Power control enhanced AMDC
- Further Applications
- Multiuser parallel scheduling
- Sum-rate analysis of multiuser MIMO systems
The tutorial coverage is sufficiently broad as to have strong appeal to MS and PhD students, instructors/lecturers, and researchers currently working in the field of digital communications as well as a large cross-section of practicing engineers who are responsible for the design, development, and performance evaluation of wireless communication systems.
The tutorial will provide a unique and coherent treatment of order statistics and its applications to the analysis and design of wireless communication technologies. Special emphasis will be on the accurate tradeoff analysis of different design operations through statistical analysis.
Dr. Hong-Chuan Yang (Senior Member IEEE) received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota in 2003. He is an associate professor of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Victoria, Canada. His research focuses on different aspects of wireless communications, with special emphasis on diversity techniques, cross-layer design, energy-efficient communications, and system performance evaluation.
Dr. Mohamed-Slim Alouini (Fellow IEEE) received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in 1998. He also received the Habilitation degree from the Université Pierre et Marie Curie in 2003. Dr. Alouini started his academic career at the University of Minnesota in 1998. In 2005, he joined Texas A&M University at Qatar, Doha, and in 2009, he was appointed as Professor of Electrical Engineering at KAUST, Thuwal, Mekkah Province, Saudi Arabia, where he is responsible for research and teaching in the areas of Communication Theory and Applied Probability. More specifically, his research interests include design and performance analysis of diversity combining techniques, MIMO techniques, multi-hop/cooperative communications systems, cognitive radio systems, and multi-resolution, hierarchical and adaptive modulation schemes. Dr. Alouini has published several papers on the above subjects, and he is co-author of the textbook Digital Communication over Fading Channels published by Wiley Interscience. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), a member of the Thomson ISI Web of Knowledge list of Highly Cited Researchers, and a co-recipient of best paper awards in eight IEEE conferences (including ICC, GLOBECOM, VTC, and PIMRC).
T6: Internet Access under High-Speed Mobility
Presented by: Prof. Mahbub Hassan and Dr. Salil Kanhere, University of New South Wales, Sydney Australia
Room: Golden Gate 3
The proliferation of smart mobile devices has given birth to a new Internet access scenario. More users are now accessing the Internet while travelling in cars, buses and trains. These users cover significant distances within an active Internet session opening up new opportunities as well as challenges for the Internet access. For example, a fast moving user visits many different locations within a short time, creating the opportunity to optimize session uploads and downloads by exploiting the networking diversity available in those locations. In contrast, due to the location-sensitiveness of wireless performance, a fast moving user faces escalating bandwidth uncertainly, making real-time multimedia a challenging problem. How to optimize the Internet access for fast moving users has become a topic of intense research in the recent years. This tutorial provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research in this area. The tutorial will conclude with open issues and future directions of research.
- to learn about market trends and new applications in vehicular Internet access
- to become familiar with the state-of-the-art mobile access technologies
- to appreciate the key challenges and opportunities arising from high-speed mobility
- to gain insight into mobile network performance under high-speed mobility
- to understand the physical layer techniques for dealing with the fast-changing wireless environment in mobile Internet access
- to learn how multihoming and network diversity can be exploited for improving mobile data access
- to learn new techniques for multimedia content distribution to fast-moving users
- to learn the concepts and applications of wireless geo-intelligence, which seeks to exploit the geo-sensitivity of mobile bandwidth
- to appreciate the open issues and further research and development opportunities in vehicular Internet access
- Demand for Vehicular Internet Access
- Overview of Mobile Access Technologies (WiFi/3G/4G/WiMaX/DSRC/Mobile IP/NEMO)
- Issues with High-Speed Mobility
- Characterisation of Mobile Network Performance under High-Speed Mobility
- Physical Layer Methods for Dealing with the Dynamic Wireless Environment
- Exploiting Multihoming and Network Diversity for Mobile Data Access
- Multimedia Content Distribution for High-Speed Mobile Users
- Wireless Geo-Intelligence
- Geo-sensitivity of Mobile Bandwidth
- Croudsourcing Location-senstive Bandwidth Information
- Case Studies: Mobile Streaming and Multihoming
- Conclusions, Open Issues, Future Directions
This tutorial is open to researchers, academics, students and industry practitioners working in the broad area of wireless communications and mobile computing. It does not assume that the attendees require any prior knowledge other than basic understanding of computer networks.
An increasing number of users today access the Internet from fast moving platforms, either directly through their personal devices or through broadband connectivity embedded in the vehicle. This trend is only expected to continue as in-car mobile broadband services are rapidly being introduced by the automotive industry. The tutorial offers the attendees of VTC an opportunity to gain an in-depth overview of this exciting area of research. To the best of our knowledge, a tutorial on this topic has not yet been presented in prior conferences.
Mahbub Hassan is a Full Professor in the University of New South Wales, Australia, and a Program Leader at the recently launched Research Centre for Integrated Transport Innovation. He was the Keynote Speaker at the 2009 IEEE International Workshop on Vehicular Networking, Singapore. He served on the Technical Program Committees of many international workshops on vehicular communication and was an invited participant of the German Schloss Dagstuhl seminar on Inter-Vehicle Communication held in October 2010. He authored 3 books, which are used in 70 universities across America, Europe and Asia. Professor Hassan served as guest-editor for IEEE Network, IEEE Communications Magazine, Journal of Supercomputing, and Real Time Imaging. As an Invited Professor of the French Government, he contributed to research at the University of Nantes. Professor Hassan has a PhD from Monash University, Australia, and an MSc from University of Victoria, Canada. He holds a US patent on dynamic control of Internet Protocol traffic. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE.
Salil Kanhere received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, both in Electrical Engineering from Drexel University, Philadelphia in 2001 and 2003, respectively. He is currently a Senior Lecturer at the School of Computer Science and Engineering at The University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. His research interests include mobile networks, vehicular communication, participatory sensing and sensor networks. He has published over 75 peer-reviewed articles on these research topics. He currently serves as the Area Editor for the ICST Journal on Ubiquitous Environments and the European Transactions on Telecommunications. He has also served on the organizing committee and program committee of a number of IEEE and ACM international conferences. He is a member of the IEEE and ACM.
T7: LTE-Advanced Relay Tutorial
Presented by: Bernhard Raaf and Simone Redana, Nokia Siemens Networks - Radio Research
Room: Golden Gate 4
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is currently finalizing the standardization of the next evolution of LTE, known as LTE-Advanced (also referred to as LTE release 10). In order to fulfill the demanding requirements of LTE-Advanced (which include features such as peak data rates of 1 Gbps in the downlink and 500Mbps in the uplink, low latency, support for mobility up to 350km/h, and good throughput guarantee even to indoor and cell edge users), several technological enhancements are proposed. Relaying is one of these key technological enhancements, along with carrier aggregation, improved multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna schemes, and coordinated transmission and reception between different base stations. Relaying eases the network deployment process and is expected to help mainly in coverage extension during initial deployment stages, but will be used in future LTE releases for capacity enhancement purposes as well.
The tutorial starts with a general introduction on LTE-Advanced and relaying. The different types of relaying, the possible deployment scenarios and performance results illustrating the coverage/capacity as well as cost benefits of relaying are then discussed. After that, the main focus will be put on the architectural and protocol aspects for realizing relaying in LTE-Advanced networks, as well as on the physical layer enhancements required to provide backward compatibility with LTE Rel.8/9 UEs. The tutorial focuses also on the enhancements that are expected to be addressed in the next LTE releases (Rel.11 and beyond) and presents the performance for some of these enhancements
The tutorial will help the participants in understanding:
the basics of relaying technology within the context of LTE-Advanced
the details of the different relaying types realized in LTE-Advanced: Inband/outband, Type I, Ia, Ib, transparent/ non transparent
the performance of relays in terms of coverage and capacity as well as cost benefits/savings of relay deployment
the enhancements to the architecture and protocols for supporting relaying in LTE-Advanced
the implementation of relaying for LTE-Advanced at the physical layer
the roadmap of relaying standardization process in 3GPP and the different optimizations and open issues that are not addressed in LTE-A release 10 and that are expected to be discussed in next releases Rel.11 and beyond
performance of some of the relay enhancements identified for Rel.11
- Introduction to LTE-Advanced
- The road to LTE-Advanced
- LTE-Advanced requirements
- Candidate technologies
- Introduction to Relaying
- Relaying basics
- Different relaying alternatives and types (inband/outband, type I/Ia/Ib/II, transparent/non transparent)
- Amplify & Forward vs. Decode & Forward relays
- Relay site planning
- Coverage and Capacity Performance
- Comparison of relay with micro/pico deployment
- Resource sharing on the backhaul link
- Cost Analysis: Business Case for Relaying
- Methodology and relevant cost components
- Business case for coverage in high and low cost areas
- Business case for capacity limited scenario
- Relaying in LTE-Advanced: Higher Layer Implementation
- Architecture enhancements
- Protocol enhancements
- L2/L3 Procedure enhancements
- Relaying in LTE-Advanced: Lower Layer Implementation
- Backhaul using MBSFN subframes
- Timing optimizations for downlink and uplink
- Backhaul control signaling
- HARQ on backhaul and access links
- Relay frame-structures for TDD
- Relaying in Release11 and Beyond
- Status relay standardization in 3GPP
- Carrier Aggregation over the wireless backhaul link
- RN-to-RN interference coordination
- Relay coverage area extension
- Mobile Relays
- Cooperative backhauling
- Multi-hop Relays
- L2 Relays
This tutorial is prepared for researchers in industry and academia (including graduate students), system developers, and colleagues from government and standardization agencies, who are interested in getting a general overview of relaying, the anticipated performance benefits, and the different alternatives of realizing relaying in future releases of LTE. The level of treatment is mainly conceptual, and as such can be understood by those with a basic knowledge of cellular/wireless network architectures and protocols.
Most of the existing literature on relaying mainly deals with theoretical aspects. In contrast, this tutorial focuses on practical aspects of relaying by considering the standardization in 3GPP. Thus, it complements the publicly accessible literature about the subject, and helps researchers in getting a holistic view of the relaying technology. The focus is on both the standardization of relays in LTE Rel.10 (PHY, architecture, protocols) and the challenges that need to be addressed in LTE Rel.11 including promising candidate technologies.
Bernhard Raaf is Principal Engineer in the Radio Research unit of Nokia Siemens Networks, heading customer and research projects on relaying for LTE-Advanced. After receiving his diploma degree on Physics from the Technical University Munich, working on radar measurements on auroral arcs at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, he joined Siemens in 1991 working on ASIC and software design and was responsible for conformance testing and type approval of GSM phones. Then he became ETSI and 3GPP delegate in 1997 leading a 3G research & standardization team for radio system concept enhancements of UMTS, HSDPA, HSUPA and finally LTE and LTE advanced. Bernhard published some 30 papers in journals and conferences, including Best Paper Award on IEEE VTC and filed numerous patent applications of which some hundred have already been granted.
Dr. Simone Redana is Senior Research Engineer in the Radio Research unit of Nokia Siemens Networks, leading research and standardization projects on relaying beyond LTE Rel.10. He received his PhD degree in Telecommunication Engineering from Politecnico di Milano, Italy in 2005. In 2005 and 2006 he was with Azcom Technology as consultant for Siemens Communication working on WIMAX demonstrator. In 2006, he joined Siemens Communication in Milan, Italy, which merged in 2007 with Nokia Networks to become Nokia Siemens Networks. Since 2008 he is with Nokia Siemens Networks in Munich, Germany. He contributed to the EU WINNER II project (relaying concept), to the Eureka Celtic project WINNER+ (system concept design) and to EU ARTIST4G project leading the work package on advanced relay concept design. He is currently contributing to the 3GPP RAN standardization of Relaying in Rel.10 and beyond as well as involved in the business case analysis for relays.
T8: Resource Allocation in Future Wireless Networks: A Selection-Based Design Perspective by Iain B. Collings, Zhuo Chen, and Maged Elkashlan, CSIRO ICT Centre, Australia has been cancelled
T9: VANET MACs: from Requirements to Current and Future Solutions
Presented by: Riccardo M. Scopigno, Broadband Wireless Solutions Dept. – Istituto Superiore Mario Boella
Room: Golden Gate 6
The tutorial covers VANETs requirements and available MAC solutions (standard and alternative ones). The tutorial includes three main parts:
• Vanets applications and requirements
• Standard PHY-MAC approaches in EU and USA.
• Emerging MAC solutions (in particular synchronous ones).
The analysis gives the opportunity to respectively introduce VANET scenarios (from which requirements are deduced), the weaknesses of incumbent MAC solutions and some new synchronous solutions which are being discussed, especially in Europe (www.ms-aloha.eu). This constitutes the main novelty of the tutorial.
Worthily the overall analysis gives the opportunity to introduce also some novel simulations models which deeply influence the theoretical analysis.
The specific characteristics of Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks make their quantitative and qualitative analysis particularly critical and poses new peculiar challenges to the protocol design, especially for the MAC.
In VANET the number of participating nodes are not always known and, more importantly, cannot be restricted. Moreover, the ad hoc network topology is decentralized without stationary access points or base stations that regulate access to the shared channel.
MAC protocols for VANETs should carefully face the quickly changing network topology due to the vehicles’ mobility, the consequent shortened connection lifetime, the multi-hop nature of V2V links, and the adverse effects of an hostile environmental on the radio signal propagation.
Furthermore, MAC protocols have to cope with the different nature and quality requirements of manifold kinds of applications. In particular safety-related applications have obvious real-time constraints.
All in all, to fit the ad hoc network architecture with broadcasted cooperative awareness messages, a vehicular MAC protocol must be: 1) decentralized, properly 2) properly scalable and 3) reactive, so to cope with rapid changes in the network topology. The MAC method should also be: 4) real-time (to guarantee low delivery-time of safety messages), 5) reliable and 6) fair, i.e., give all nodes at least one opportunity to access the channel within each time period.
All the aforementioned constraints make the design of MAC (and upper-layer) protocols for VANETs a very challenging issue.
According to this introduction, the proposed tutorial includes three main parts respectively focused on:
• Vanets applications and requirements
• Standard PHY-MAC approaches in EU and USA.
• Emerging MAC solutions (in particular synchronous ones).
While the first two parts are self-explaining, some words may be useful to characterize the last - which is the most challenging and perhaps cutting-edge topic.
CSMA, used in IEEE 802.11p, was designed for event-driven data traffic. While it is natively decentralized, reactive and fair, reversely it can hardly manage scalability, reliability and fulfil time-requirements. In fact the random waiting time before transmission (together with the collisions) may lead to potential problems affecting such features: additionally, the periodic transmissions implied by CAM may even worsen performances due to an increased network load.
Conversely time slotted MAC approaches are well suited for time-triggered data (e.g., CAMs). Due to the time slots, all nodes know when they will be allowed to access the channel, i.e., the channel access delay is upper bounded and fair. In CSMA the collisions in the air take place randomly in space whereas TDMA approaches try to schedule concurrent transmissions as far apart as possible (in space). This feature increases the reception probability, i.e., reliability, for the nodes situated close to the sender, which ought to be the most interested nodes to receive the message.
Consequently slotted approaches natively support reliability and fulfill time requirements; so the main potential issues with slotted approaches seemed to be their scalability and fairness due to possible slot exhaustion (i.e. scarce slot reuse). However these issues have been successfully solved by MS-Aloha, as mentioned in literature. So the main research area still addressed by slotted VANETs is synchronization. This is discussed in the tutorial too.
- VANET Scenarios
- VANET Requirements
- WAVE protocol stack
- IEEE 802.11p
- Tranceiver chain and blocks' motivations
- MAC features and settings
- Performance analysis
- SWOT analysis of IEEE 802.11p
- WAVE's upper layers
- WAVE IEEE 1609.x issues
- Open issues in synchronous VANETs
- MS-Aloha's solutions
- Slot reuse and preemption
- Other synchronous solutions in literature
- The issue of synchronization
- The issue of compatibility with IEEE 802.11p
- Quantitative and Qualitative Measurements
- New simulation tool
- Demonstration by VisMagna visualization tool
The tutorial is aimed at researcher in the field of VANETs.
The tutorial provides first an introduction to general topics, so that the prerequisites for the participation can be lowered.
The main part is on emerging MAC solutions, so that all the stake-holders of VANETs may be interested in.
Finally also some general models for wireless simulations are mentioned - being used for the validation of MACs. This may somehow widen the audience.
Moving its steps from the analysis of VANET requirements, the tutorial is made different basically by its quantitiative and qualitative SWOT (Strenghts, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis on MAC.
In particular a critical study addresses both incumbent (CSMA/CA) and emerging (MS-Aloha) MAC solutions.
Considering that the teacher holds the most recent and novel publications in the area of synchronous protocols and patents in the field, the novelty of the tutorial can be hardly copied.
Worthily the tutorial introduces also some novel simulations models and provides a perceptual insight into results by a proprietary visualization tool
Riccardo Scopigno (M.Sc. 1995, Ph.D. 2005) has matured a 15-year working experience in the TLC field, obtaining, in the meantime his Ph.D. .
His skills cover very different aspects of the telecommunication architectures, from theory to practice, as matured from his variegate working experience.
In fact he was first a hardware designer for TLC systems in Italtel-Siemens (1997-1999); afterwards, in Marconi (2000-2003), he achieved a good expertise in IP network design, especially for multimedia contents (he got also a certification as network engineer at Marconi Pittsburgh PA).
He is currently active in advanced research on wireless networks– he has been Director of Networking Lab of ISMB for nearly 8 years (since April 2003). He leads a team of 20 people.
Concerning the specific topics addressed by this tutorial, the following experiences seem relevant.
1) He is ISMB’s representative in ETSI ITS (the working group on intelligent transportation systems of the European standardization body on TLC where he has also been called within a Specialist Task Force) and within Car-to-Car Communication Consortium (C2C-cc).
2) He published about 30 papers on WiFi and about 15 on vehicular communications in the last two years at important IEEE conferences (VTC, VNC, PIMRC, QShine, ...), acting also as TPC. He is author of 3 patent pending techniques for vanets (synchronous MAC MS-Aloha, georouting MapCast and TD-uCSMA, a CSMA/CA improvement for QoS ).
3) His team simulates new protocols (they carry out performance evaluations and comparative analyses on NS-2 simulator as well as mixed simulations involving mobility) and carries out practical measurements. They have achieved a deep understanding of vehicular communications (from the subtended services to the logical architectures), defining new propagation models, MAC solutions and georouting techniques.
4) He contributed to ISMB tasks within EU FP7 projects and to ISMB’s role within Ertico Consortium. He also participates in national (Easy-Rider) and international (DAMASCO, with STM and Univ. California Los Angeles) research programs.